This research aims to characterize consumer behavior when purchasing essential goods before and during the pandemic caused by the COVID-19, and retailers’ perception during this pandemic period, as well as to relate the impact of such changes in urban supply logistics. Two questionnaires were applied in regions classified as BOP (Base of Pyramid) and descriptive and multivariate analysis were performed using cluster analysis. The research shows that there is an increase in the consumer’s purchase frequency, which also increases the demand from retailers and the logistic needs of the regions evaluated, weakened mainly by the lack of infrastructure and spaces for loading and unloading. The results show that there was an increase in purchases acquired by delivery applications during the pandemics, which seems to be a trend, which may require from these regions a better road infrastructure for large (used by suppliers) and individual vehicles (used by deliverers).

Social distancing has been adopted as a strategy to contain the advance of the pandemic until specific solutions to combat the virus are available. Many economic sectors and social activities need to continue despite the viruses, and most social distancing policies disregard individual choices, resulting in greater or lesser adherence to isolation. In this paper, we characterize the differentiation of access to essential activities within Brazilian cities during social distancing and the intention to maintain behavior changes concerning these activities in the postpandemic period. The results showed that the behavior regarding essential activities during the pandemic is not independent of variables associated with pre-pandemic travel patterns, isolation conditions, and socioeconomic factors. Post-pandemic intention proved to be statistically dependent on factors associated with the activities’ characteristics and experiences during the pandemic. Accessibility-oriented planning can guide urban and transportation policies more equitably through the identification of the most affected groups by activity disruption. At the same time, the incorporation of new routines less dependent on displacement offers opportunities to review public space.

This article aims to understand the problem of accessibility to work opportunities and its relationship with mobility in the city of Belo Horizonte. For this purpose, a method was applied to evaluate, at a strategic level, problems of unequal and inequitable distribution of accessibility and mobility (GARCIA et al., 2018), based on spatial analysis techniques and ethical theories of social justice. The methodology consists of the characterization and diagnosis of distributions of accessibility and mobility problems, based on the relationships between factors contributing to these problems’ occurrence and their characteristics. For this purpose, the selected indicators were submitted to exploratory analysis, considering non-spatial and spatial approaches. Belo Horizonte presents uneven and unequal distributions of accessibility and mobility to work opportunities. The levels of accessibility to work are higher in the central business district, where there is a concentration of jobs and shorter travel times compared to the rest of the municipality. In contrast, mobility has a very dispersed pattern of spatial distribution. Critical zones were delimited from unequal distribution in the diagnostic phase, based on sufficiency parameters for each transport mode. Also, analyses of the relationships between accessibility and mobility and the urban attributes contributing to the uneven and unequal distribution of opportunities were carried out. The results of this work can support the formulation and prioritization of public policies.

This paper aims to characterize the relocation of warehouses in the S˜ ao Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR) considering the spatial structure of changes in warehouse locations. We also discuss the potential factors that could attract warehouses to their location, especially in peripheral regions. The study encompasses the period between 1992 and 2017 and analyzes the influence of geographical, economics, road infrastructure, municipality service tax rate, cargo theft, and real estate prices on logistics facility location. The results show no evidence of logistics sprawl in SPMR during the studied period, although a small sprawl appeared between 2010 and 2017, moving the barycenter to the Northwestern direction of the SPMR. The main factors that influence the decision to move the warehouses are the low cost of land, lower tax, and a well-served infrastructure with highway intersections. There is a positive spatial correlation between warehouse per capita and cargo theft.

By 2050, there will be at least nine billion people in the world to be fed, and two-thirds of them will live in cities. A before-after assessment of an urban horticulture scenario is presented to address the negative impacts of goods distribution within cities. A baseline scenario for the current food system is compared with the proposed one, adapted to local production and consumption through a case study for Belo Horizonte (Brazil). A Life Cycle Assessment was considered to estimate the potential environmental impact reduction by implementing a local production and consumption model. The Ecoinvent dataset 3.5, exiobase2, and the CML impacts methods were used. The potential of global warming, acidification, photochemical oxidation, and human toxicity was determined for both scenarios. Moreover, fuel, infrastructure, and vehicle consumption concerning the changes among the settings were compared. All categories of environmental impact presented significant reductions regarding the changes among scenarios for the distribution of vegetables. This paper brings a phenomenological contribution to Belo Horizonte’s city, which can be considered to subsidize public policy decision-making to support urban agriculture

The outsourcing of logistics activities has driven the emergence of an urban logistics real estate market. Urban land and floor space scarcity and economies of scale have mostly relocated logistics facilities towards less dense and more peripheral areas of cities1–6. This process, known as ‘logistics sprawl,’ has compromised urban sustainability, livability, and economic growth1–4. Through this research, as a contribution to the Logistics City Chair, we explore the hypotheses that logistics sprawl is higher in cities with a high differential between central and suburban land/rent values. We have compared the urban spatial structure with warehouses' location and rent prices in 53 metropolitan areas worldwide. The methodological steps of this research were based on two primary analyses: (i) the characterization of the urban spatial structure in each metropolitan area and the relationship among urban variables, warehouse location, and real estate rent prices; and (ii) a comparative analysis among the metropolitan areas under investigation, considering the meta-analysis of logistics sprawl in published studies (Palacios-Argüello and Dablanc, 2020a) and the differential warehouse rent price concerning central and suburban areas.

Access to food products is essential to sustain life. In this paper, we discuss the differences concerning accessibility levels to food retailers among potential consumers in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The goal was to characterize spatial mismatches regarding opportunities to access food and identify suitable areas for sustainable last food mile solutions, such as non-motorized home delivery and purchase trips. For this, we have spatially related: (i) the population concentration; (ii) the income of households and (iii) accessibility measures considering both the spatial structure of food retailers and the distance between households and stores, considering the food last mile. We have then used spatial statistics (Global Moran’s I index, average nearest neighborhood analysis) and spatial analyses (overlay and processing) to determine the spatial pattern and the relation of the variables population, income, and accessibility to food retailers. We have considered the cumulative-opportunity measure, which is an indicator of the number of opportunities that can be reached within a time threshold. There is great spatial differentiation regarding the accessibility levels of food retailers and the results can be considered to support the development of policy and land use regulation that can stimulate non-motorized and collaborative delivery as an effective last-mile solution.

© 2020 Editora CHAMPAGNAT. All rights reserved. The spatial differentiation of the main constraints and challenges on urban freight transportation can support more assertive public policies and measures, subsidizing city logistics solutions. This paper presents the use of spatial analysis to characterize retailers and carriers’ perceptions on the most important constraints and challenges faced during the urban freight delivery in the central area of Sorocaba/SP. To identify possible clustered patterns concerning problems and solutions from the stakeholders’ viewpoint, the data were analyzed through two spatial techniques: Average Nearest Neighbors and Getis Gi Ord* Hot Spots analysis. These two methodological approaches provide a spatial concentration analysis. As a result, we determined the spatial patterns of stakeholders’ perception for the two groups of variables assessed: (i) the Northwestern portion of Sorocaba’s central area is not prepared to receive the demands of vehicles, and the stakeholders present restrictions related to off-peak deliveries; (ii) the Northeastern region has the greatest negative perception regarding the assessed attributes, and shows little evidence that the loading and unloading space is not appropriate.

Mergers between companies are motivated by synergy effects that can improve profitability. On February 11, 2015, the Administrative Council for Economic Defense (Cade) approved, the merger between America Latina Logistica (ALL), the largest railroad transport company in Brazil and Rumo Logistics (RUMO), an operator with national impact with restrictions, and formed a new entity RUMO-ALL. The approval of this merger suggested that there could be an increase in operational efficiency without compromising the competition. In this work, the operational efficiency of RUMO-ALL is evaluated using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models for the return of adequate scale. Statistical tests of structural break are performed in order to understand if there are an ex-post merger effects on the operational efficiency after the expansion of the service. The results indicate that the rail service after the merger is efficient, but with marginal reduction of production with an increase of input, which is expected according to neoclassical economic theory for monopolies.

Brazilian historical cities face the challenge of developing urban mobility plans, preserving the historical and cultural heritage and preserving the original urban characteristics. A plausible solution to reduce the impacts of the flow of goods in historical cities is to investigate different deliveries systems to reduce the externalities of this activity. This paper presents the results of a survey that identified the factors involved in the implementation of an Urban Distribution Centre (UDC) in Sabará (Brazil), considering modes non-motorized to perform the delivery in historic centres. For this, we identified the perception of retailers concerning historical and technical attributes. We analysed the data using descriptive statistics. The results indicate that lack of attractiveness of UDC, considering the point of view of retailers located in historic city centre. However, we identify the need to explore solutions for urban delivery in Brazilian historical cities to preserve historic heritage.

The collection and delivery points (CDP) are an alternative to home deliveries and an important opportunity to reduce failed deliveries within urban areas. In this study, we propose to analyze the accessibility from CDPs located in commercial establishments (drugstores, gas stations, post offices, supermarkets, and malls) considered most attractive by e-consumers to receive this delivery solution. The methodological approach uses spatial analysis to identify the coverage area of the CDPs considering socioeconomic data and e-consumer preferences. Also, spatial tools to analyze the accessibility of CDPs were used, considering the transport infrastructure, the population location, and job opportunities location through different transport modes. The results indicated differences in levels of accessibility between the CDPs, highlighting the important associations among economic activities, land use patterns, and transport to plan for sustainable cities. The use of cluster analysis methods as a methodological approach is one contribution and can be replicated to support decision-making in other cities.

O aumento na demanda por mercadorias tem impacto direto no sistema de distribui­ção de cargas nos centros urbanos, o que resulta em desafios logísticos para as empre­sas de transporte e para os varejistas durante o recebimento dessas mercadorias. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar quais são as maiores dificuldades no recebimento das mercadorias referentes às restrições locais e aos desafios logísticos, sob o ponto de vista dos varejistas e transportadores. Um levantamento de dados foi feito com os ato­res na região central da cidade de Sorocaba. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva, análise de correlação e análise fatorial com o objetivo de enten­der os principais fatores logísticos que interferem na entrega/recebimento das merca­dorias. Como resultado, percebe-se que a principal restrição é a falta de local disponí­vel para entrega/recebimento de mercadorias nos estabelecimentos e os principais de­safios logísticos são referentes à infraestrutura do local e entregas fora do horário co­mercial.

Urban freight transport is a challenge for Brazilian cities due to the lack of adequate planning for freight flow movement. Public managers also show negligence and a lack of awareness when dealing with urban logistics. Decision-support data on urban freight transport are still scarce, despite being of fundamental value to economic development. With this in mind, this paper presents problems and solutions regarding urban freight transport in Brazilian cities. Data were obtained through a survey conducted in nine cities and analysed by means of descriptive statistics and the successive intervals method. Additionally, a cluster analysis was performed to identify patterns regarding the typical characteristics of each city in order to compare and generalise the perception of retailers regarding problems and solutions at the national level. The results indicate divergent opinions among retailers from different cities, even from cities with similar socioeconomic profiles and urban dynamics. The municipalities which demonstrated the most similarities were (i) Betim and Niteroi, in the Southeast of Brazil; (ii) Palmas and Quixada, in the North and Northeast, respectively; and (iii) Palmas and Caruaru, also in the North and Northeast. The results reinforce the importance of studying the local context and involving stakeholders in the process of planning urban logistics solutions.

Este artigo apresenta modelos de geração de viagens para sete categorias de empreendimentos (casas noturnas, condomínios residenciais, escolas de ensino fundamental e médio, hospitais, instituições de ensino superior, shopping centers e supermercados) para Belo Horizonte. Contagem classificada volumétrica de veículos, entrevistas e dados de controle de acesso foram utilizados para identificar as características dos empreendimentos e desenvolver os modelos. Os modelos desenvolvidos apresentaram boa correlação entre as variáveis utilizadas e significância estatística, exceto para condomínios residenciais e supermercados. A validação dos modelos indicou uma boa aproximação com os dados coletados em campo. A comparação com os modelos da literatura nacional indicou que investigar e desenvolver estudos para uma cidade é importante quando há necessidade de utilizá-los em estudos de impacto viário para determinação de medidas mitigadoras na implantação dos empreendimentos de impacto. Desta forma, os modelos locais são mais precisos e tendem a produzir menores erros na projeção, permitindo uma avaliação mais confiável e adequada das medidas mitigadoras necessárias para o empreendimento.

A localização de instalações logísticas próximas à infraestrutura de transportes e ao destino das mercadorias é importante para a distribuição urbana de mercadorias e po­tencializa sustentabilidade econômica e ambiental em uma região. Neste artigo é ana­lisado o espraiamento logístico na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte e Colar Me­tropolitano entre os anos 1995-2015, utilizando dados secundários. Técnicas de análise espacial foram utilizadas para determinar o centro médio da localização dos equipa­mentos logísticos e a respectiva dispersão espacial. Os resultados indicaram um esprai­amento logístico de 1,2 km (1995: 17,8 km para 2015: 19 km, no sentido noroeste da área de estudo). A mudança de eixo de dispersão da localização das instalações logís­ticas é consistente com as políticas de desenvolvimento metropolitanas. Foram ainda discutidas as mudanças em relação à tipologia dos armazéns e as possibilidades utili­zação dos resultados para a definição de políticas públicas de uso e ocupação do solo e mobilidade urbana.

The problems related to home delivery become increasingly evident with the growth of electronic commerce. Automatic delivery stations represent a solution to reduce mislaid deliveries and consolidate parcels drop-off, minimizing the kilometers travelled, and the costs of urban goods distribution. In order to better understand online shoppers' attitudes towards new delivery services, we analyze the potential demand of automatic delivery stations (lockers) in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. For this purpose, we develop a survey according to stated preference and revealed preference methods, and we assess potential users considering two deliveries services: home delivery and automated delivery stations. The results indicate that, although home delivery is the preferred option, automatic delivery stations score high potential demand for online shoppers. This paper provides an approach to integrate the impact of final consumers' preferences on shaping last-mile operations, and it thus helps policymakers to identify the most suitable innovations to specific urban settings.

A distribuição urbana de mercadorias está diretamente relacionada ao desenvolvimento econômico, apesar dos impactos negativos relacionados a esta atividade. Uma forma de minimizar tais impactos é utilizando-se políticas públicas e, para isto, os modelos de geração de viagens de carga podem ser uma estratégica para conhecer o comportamento do fluxo de carga no meio urbano. Nesse contexto, este trabalho revisa os modelos de geração de viagens de carga no contexto brasileiro e propõe modelos para importantes setores em Belo Horizonte: Bares, Restaurantes, Mercados e Supermercados. Para tanto, utilizou-se de pesquisa de campo para coleta de informações nos segmentos analisados, cujos dados foram analisados buscando determinar a melhor correlação entre as variáveis que descrevem a geração de viagens. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a taxa de geração de viagens em relação à área do estabelecimento comercial foi o modelo que apresentou o melhor ajuste. Além disso, o desenvolvimento de modelos para as diferentes regionais da cidade, além do modelo geral, indicou a importância de análises locais para a avaliação da movimentação da carga. Por fim, a comparação dos modelos obtidos com os modelos encontrados na literatura brasileira indicou semelhanças e divergências e reforçou a necessidade de modelos locais, especializados para os diferentes setores econômicos.